ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

By Charmi Porwal on July 18 ,2018

Magic bullet turning into dangerous threat

Use of antibiotics. Initially hailed as “magic bullets” these chemical agents are now used so often that success threatens their long-term utility. Our failure to adequately address antibiotic resistance problems may ultimately push the control of infectious disease back to pre-penicillin era.

Antibiotics

Antibiotics include agents like penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and many more. Antibiotics are equated to antibacterial that either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria

What is antibiotic resistance?

Resistance is a condition is which antibiotics fail to harm pathogens enough to cure disease. When an antibiotic is used and kills off “weak” bacteria, the resistant bacteria (superbugs) survive, reproduce, and can spread among humans and animals.

  • Resistance problems :

Each year in United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die as a result.

  • The main problem leading to antibiotic resistance-
    1. is the drug prescriptions, 36% of individuals with cold and upper respiratory problems (both viral in origin) were given prescriptions for antibiotics. These prescriptions accomplished nothing other than increasing the risk of further evolution of antibiotic drug resistance.
    1. Antibiotic waste disposal problems by pharmaceutical companies.
    1. In agricultural sector, use of antibiotics for growth promotion.

    What is CRE :

    “CRE, which stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, is the most fearsome family of germs because it is resistant even to last-resort antibiotics.” Klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with pneumonia) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) are both in the Enterobacteriaceae family and can become carbapenem-resistant.

    Antibiotics affecting gut flora In humans

    In the gut live one trillion bacteria, which are known as microbiota or gut flora, and that have co-evolved in symbiosis with humans. According to this study, treatment with antibiotics can alter this symbiosis from early stages of the treatment.

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics can affect the abundances of 30% of the bacteria in the gut community, antibiotics also affect the gene expression, protein activity and overall metabolism of the gut microbiota.

    Are There Side Effects of Antibiotics?

    Antibiotics can potentially cause diarrhea, soft stools, stomach upset, constipation, rash or allergic reaction.several new studies suggest that overuse of antibiotics could damage the immune system.

    How Long Does It Take to Restore Gut Health?

    A high-quality probiotic supplement is your first line of defense, as probiotics are the very beneficial bacteria that antibiotics destroy.

    Fermented foods are naturally rich in probiotics, and are an excellent way to maintain proper gut health post-antibiotic use. Combining them with a probiotic supplement after a round of antibiotics will help with healing.

    Some great and easy-to-find sources include raw sauerkraut, kimchi, plain yogurt, kefir and kombucha tea.

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn’s disease, however, may need longer-term support to rebuild a healthy microbiome after taking antibiotics.

    Tips on Restoring Gut Flora After Antibiotics

    1. Probiotics are the underlying key to restoring the gut microbiome following antibiotic use.

    2. For the bacteria to become reestablished in the gut following antibiotics, they must be “fed” with fiber-rich foods

    3. You may have to rebuild the proactive mucus lining of the gut after long-term antibiotic use.

    4. Don’t eat too many artificial sweeteners, leading to increased blood sugar and impaired insulin response

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    Author: charmiporwal

    K

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